Portland cement, a critical ingredient in concrete, is used widely for all types of construction. The cement production process, as well as the chemical reactions involved in its manufacture, are highly energy-intensive.
While incremental reductions to cement industry emissions are possible through operational efficiencies, more fundamental change is needed to address both energy-related and process emissions.
Energy emissions can be addressed by low-carbon and net-zero fuels such as biomass or hydrogen, or through electric heating. Carbon capture and storage and alternative cement chemistries can contribute to eliminating process emissions. A shift towards more sustainable construction practices including the use of alternative materials offers additional emissions abatement approaches.